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The higher the uranium-to-lead ratio of a rock, the more the Pb-206/Pb-204 and Pb-207/Pb-204 values will change with time.If the source of the solar system was also uniformly distributed with respect to uranium isotope ratios, then the data points will always fall on a single line.This work gave rise to a process known as radiometric dating.This technique is based on a comparison between the measured amount of a naturally occurring radioactive element and its decay products, assuming a constant rate of decay – known as a half-life.But Earth’s layers of rock did not give up the secret of Earth’s age easily. However, from working with layer upon layer of rock laid down on Earth over long time spans, early 20th century scientists came to believe Earth not of atoms of one chemical element into another.They led to the discovery that certain very heavy elements could decay into lighter elements – such as uranium decaying into lead.Unfortunately, the age cannot be computed directly from material that is solely from the Earth.There is evidence that energy from the Earth's accumulation caused the surface to be molten.
Today’s scientists believe that answer is incorrect, but Kelvin’s calculations were in being based on logical thinking and mathematical calculation.
A plot is constructed of Pb-206/Pb-204 versus Pb-207/Pb-204.
If the solar system formed from a common pool of matter, which was uniformly distributed in terms of Pb isotope ratios, then the initial plots for all objects from that pool of matter would fall on a single point.
The most direct means for calculating the Earth's age is a Pb/Pb isochron age, derived from samples of the Earth and meteorites.
This involves measurement of three isotopes of lead (Pb-206, Pb-207, and either Pb-208 or Pb-204).